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Component-based software architectures

We focus on component-based architectures for the following reasons:

  • in any engineering discipline, new products are created by the composition of existing, predefined components

  • the use of components limits the degrees of freedom during design (compared to coding) but

  • this limitation increases predictability of quality attributes.



SDQ Research Projects

SDQ scientific and research activities are organized on the basis of the following projects:

Performance prediction (Palladio)

The Palladio research project aims at the development of methods and tools for systematically constructing component based software architectures with predictable quality attributes. For predicting the quality of service of software architectures we utilise and enhance existing prediction models, such as stochastic Petri nets, queuing models and Markov models in general is a special modeling language targeted at model-driven performance predictions. The PCM is accompanied by several model transformations, which derive stochastic regular expressions, queuing network models, or Java source code from a software design model. Software architects can use the results of the analytical models to evaluate the feasibility of performance requirements, identify performance bottlenecks, and support architectural design decisions quantitatively.

Contact: http://sdq.ipd.uka.de/people/ralf_reussner/index_htmlRalf Reussner

Palladio Research Project Description
Palladio Component Model homepage



CACTOS Project Logo

The EU project CACTOS aims at investigating how the deployment of services on cloud infrastructures can be optimized so that data centre operators can run cloud-based applications on top of current and future heterogeneous hardware as efficient as possible. The consortium of the €4.5 million EU project CACTOS consists of leading organisations and universities from Ireland, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Germany.

Therefore, researchers from FZI and other leading organisations will develop a toolkit enabling data centre operators to analyse and simulate the behaviour of cloud applications in order to adapt cloud infrastructures to different pre-planned scenarios. In the end, the CACTOS toolkit will allow trade-off decisions taking into account the performance of all running applications as well as the overall energy consumption.

Within the project, researchers from FZI aim at supporting cloud developers and cloud operators to build and run cloud applications that meet various performance and reliability requirements. For this purpose, FZI is responsible for integrating cloud analysis and simulation tools into a common CACTOS tooling platform supposed to support developers and cloud operators in analysing and optimizing the quality of cloud applications, heterogeneous cloud infrastructure setups, cloud topologies, and the deployment of applications on top of such infrastructures. Currently, there is no such integrated tooling facilitating optimizations for robust and responsive cloud applications and taking into account the current resource consumption as well as pre-planned workload trends. This is in line with FZI’s research on software architecture quality analysis and continuous transfer for industrial use.


Contact: Henning Groenda, Michael Hauck, Martin Küster

Project Homepage


The Vitruvius approach implements the concept of dynamically created flexible views.

The approach is based on the Orthographic Software Modeling (OSM) concept, but does not use a monolithic single underlying metamodel (SUM). Instead, legacy metamodels are combined in a non-invasive way to serve as a modular underlying model.

Contact: Erik Burger, Max Kramer, Michael Langhammer, Heiko Klare

Project Homepage


An increasing number of private households are becoming producers of renewable energy. As a significant technical and financial outlay is required in order to store and/or transport such decentrally-generated energy over greater distances, it is beneficial from an economic perspective to utilize this energy both locally and promptly. However, this does require the ability to be able to deal with local excess production at short notice using, for example, an electronic trading platform.

The objective of "PeerEnergyCloud" is to research and develop cloud-based technologies for such a platform. This includes the establishment of a virtual marketplace for local power trading as well as the design and development of innovative recording and forecast methods within a so-called "micro grid". The integration of local sensors and actuators at the end user locations, via a specially secured fiber optic cable, enables the "smart micro grid cloud services" to access usage data in real-time, which can be used for the purpose of generating forecasts, for example. Furthermore, if the consumer allows selected data to be used for other purposes, additional energy-related services (e.g. energy auditing, object protection/building monitoring, etc.) could be offered via third-party providers. A specific case is currently being reviewed within the scope of the project, which relates to a micro grid in the city of Saarlouis that consists of approximately 500 housing units and numerous photovoltaic facilities.


Contact: Fouad ben Nasr Omri

Project Homepage


CLOUDwerker: Trusted SaaS im Handwerk: flexibel – integriert – kooperativ

Lösungen "aus der Cloud" wird ein enormes Wachstum prognostiziert. Der lawinenartige Erfolg der App Stores wird die Chancen von Cloud-Lösungen in den nächsten Jahren weiter stark beflügeln. Im Gegensatz zum Leistungsspektrum bisheriger Apps werden geschäftliche Anwender jedoch mehr als nur singuläre Applikationen aus der Cloud benötigen: Sie wollen die durchgängige technische Unterstützung ihrer Kern-Unternehmensprozesse, was die konfektionierbare und skalierbare Bündelung von professionellen Business-IT-Produkten in Service-Pakete erfordert. Im Gegensatz zu On-Premise-Lösungen stellt diese Anforderung für On-Demand-Lösungen heute jedoch noch eine große Herausforderung dar bzgl. Interoperabilität und Offenheit.

Ziel von CLOUDwerker ist es, unter Verwendung und Erweiterung aktueller Cloud-Technologien, eine vertrauenswürdige, offene Service-Plattform zu konzipieren und prototypisch umzusetzen. Diese Plattform soll es erlauben Dienstebündel im Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Modell zur Verfügung zu stellen, welche wesentliche mobile und Organisations-Anforderungen von KMUs abbilden und zugleich nicht nur B2B Kooperationen, sondern auch B2C-Beziehungen unterstützen. Dienste wie z.B. CRM und ERP sollen dabei von unterschiedlichen Dienstelieferanten stammen können, jedoch anders als in heutigen App Stores flexibel anpassbar und "geschmeidig" zu Mehrwertdiensten kombinierbar sein, um eine durchgängige Bearbeitung von Geschäftsprozessen zu ermöglichen.


Contact: Fouad ben Nasr Omri

Project Homepage



Due to the rapid development in an internet-community that sustains the economical efficiency of companies and their corporate networks, software innovations form one of the most significant challenges of the future. Enterprise software forms the crucial driver for the product and process innovations.

The paradigm shift in the software industry towards open service-oriented software platforms has formed the current basis for the development of the enterprise software of the future. With the Future internet of Services digital enterprises can combine services more easily and can implement business processes faster, more dynamically and flexibly. Moreover, the combination of high performance solutions can extend the functionality of the services.

Contact: Ralf Reussner
Project Homepage



Nowadays, software systems and especially their data are accessed from different locations and through diverse channels (e.g. smart phones, web browsers or even by other remote software systems). Developing such a distributed system requires manual implementation and maintenance of data access methods for each platform and technology, including caching and synchronization infrastructure.

The MOHITO project aims to develop a harmonised data access layer and a multi-platform-framework with a homogeneous data access interface supporting adaptation points for existing data management infrastructures. It makes use of model-driven technologies to platform independently specify a data model and functional as well as quality attributes and to generate according platform specific data access layers with a common interface design.


Contact: Henning Groenda, Klaus Krogmann, Benjamin Klatt, Martin Küster

Project Homepage (German)



Partners of research and industry have joined the intelligent Zero Emission Urban System – iZEUS - project with a view to enhance research, development, and practical demonstration in the fields of smart traffic and smart grid. The project is being funded with about EUR 20 million by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology under the initiative Information and Communication Technologies for Electric Mobility II. The project was launched in January 2012 and will be completed in mid-2014. It directly succeeds the successfully completed electric mobility project MeRegioMobil .


Our focus in the iZEUS project is the development of a platform that supports the fleet test.


Contact: Michael Langhammer

Project homepage (in german)


Das Kompetenzzentrum für angewandte Sicherheitstechnologie (KASTEL) ist eines von deutschlandweit drei Forschungszentren für Cybersicherheit, die vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) im März 2011 initiiert wurden. Das Ziel von KASTEL ist die Entwicklung sicherer Anwendungen in einem durchgängigen Prozess. Beispielhaft wird dies an drei Prototypen durchgeführt und in vier Grundfragen diskutiert. Dazu kooperieren elf Lehrstühle des KIT aus den Fachbereichen Informatik, Wirtschaftswissenschaften und Rechtswissenschaften.

Contact: Max Kramer

Project Homepage


Helmholtz Research: Security- & Safety-Critical Infrastructure

The smart grid brings many benefits but also introduces new risks. To be able to handle the decentralization of power production, like the increase of small renewable power plants and prosumers, advanced demand side management capabilities are necessary. Smart meters with the ability to control user devices provide support for demand side management, but may also be vulnerable to cyber attacks. Within the portfolio research project, three Helmholtz research centers (FZ Jülich, DLR and KIT) cooperate to investigate the interplay between critical infrastructures (e.g., hospitals, water supply) the power grid and its IT infrastructure.


Contact: Misha Strittmatter

Past Projects

Descartes Project

The Descartes Project was started in July 2009 by Dr.-Ing. Samuel Kounev. The project aims to develop a novel methodology for building and managing enterprise software systems. We envision a new generation of enterprise  system platforms and services that will be self-aware and autonomic. They will be self-aware in the sense that they will be aware of  changes  that occur in their environment and will be able to predict the effect of such changes on their performance. They will be autonomic in that they will automatically adapt to ensure that system resources are utilized efficiently and performance requirements are continuously satisfied. The Descartes project will provide the means to realize this vision using online performance models generated dynamically from the evolving system configuration and exploiting these models for autonomic performance and resource management.

The Descartes project is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of the Emmy Noether Programme with the purpose to provide outstanding young researchers with the opportunity to rapidly qualify for a leading position in science and research.

Contact: Samuel Kounev
Project Homepage



The ability to understand the consequences of design decisions on the quality of an artifact can be seen as the central property of any engineering discipline. This ability to foresee the consequences of design decisions is lacking in the design process of enterprise software systems. Considerable efforts are wasted in software development projects to achieve the required quality by a costly and risky trial-and-error approach. In this approach, one has to wait until the software is executable, before important quality properties or required properties of the execution environment can be determined by testing. The goal of the FERDINAND project is to investigate approaches for the early evaluation of architectural design decisions by analyzing and comparing design alternatives with respect to their consequences on the software performance.

The research project FERDINAND is funded by the German Research Foundations (DFG).

Contact: Qais Noorshams, Andreas Rentschler

Project Homepage


ModAgile Mobile

Applications for mobile devices (apps) are a fast-growing sector within the software development industry. Projections indicate a total market volume of USD 25 billion in 2014. Unlike the development of classical business applications for desktop computers, the development of mobile applications is characterised by particularly short product life cycles, by a short time to market, and by the need to support various target platforms (e.g. iPhone, Android, Blackberry). Developers need to exploit the hardware features of mobile devices (such as camera, orientation sensors, GPS, touch screens, etc.) without implementing the application from scratch for each new device.

The BMBF-funded joint research project's goal is to approach these challenges: Model-driven techniques support the development of mobile apps. Device-specific parts of the application need to be implemented only once, significantly reducing the effort to support multiple platforms. Quality assurance along the entire development process increases software quality. Agile methods speed up the product development cycles.

Modagile Mobile offers a way to respond fast and flexibly to changes of market demand. At the same time, the effort needed to adapt to different mobile devices is reduced, facilitating an efficient multi-platform development.

The project was successfully finished in June 2013.

Contact: Klaus Krogmann, Martin Küster

Project Homepage (German)


1&1 Cloud Enablement Project

Defintion, conception and prototyping of innovative cloud computing services and the analysis of their quality of service:

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  • Storage as a Service: highly scalable storage systems
  • Network virtualization
  • Identity management: authentication and authorization protocols


Contact: Fouad ben Nasr Omri



The research project COCKTAIL is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and has a 3 years duration. Its primary goal is to define and prototypically implement a platform for software services, which can be offered as mashups or SaaS solutions. This platform will support a rich variety of business models, making the offered solutions highly attractive for small and medium-sized companies. Key platform features include scalability, flexible composition of services, and prediction of service quality to determine feasible service level agreements (SLA). Generic concepts for monitoring, accounting and billing complement the picture.

The envisioned COCKTAIL platform will be a major step towards the standardisation of business-enabled mashup and SaaS solutions.

Contact: Zoya Durdik
Project Homepage



Building views on abstract models is one of the key concepts of model-driven engineering. Different views help to present concepts behind a model in a way that they can be understood and edited by different stakeholders or developers in different roles. Within graphical modeling several approaches exist allowing the definition of explicit holistic, partial or combined graphical views for models. On the other hand several frameworks that provide textual editing support for models have been presented over recent years. However, the combination of both principals, meaning textual, editable and decorating views is lacking in all of these approaches. In this presentation, we show FURCAS (Framework for UUID Retaining Concrete to Abstract Syntax Mappings), a textual decorator approach that allows to separately store and manage the textual concrete syntax from the actual abstract model elements. Thereby we allow to define textual views on models that may be partial and/or overlapping concerning other (graphical and/or textual) views.

Contact: Thomas Goldschmidt

Project Homepage



GlobaliSE is a research project in the context of the research compound "Enterprise Software" (Forschungsverbund Unternehmenssoftware) and is funded by the Ministry of Science, Research and Arts of the federal state Baden-Württemberg. The project was started in April 2009. While coordinated by the Forschungszentrum Informatik (FZI), the project partners are the University of Mannheim and the Karlsruhe Insitute of Technology (KIT).

The goal of the project is to enable small- and medium sized software engineering enterprises to profit from globalisation. The main focus is on a light-weight support of the complete lifecycle in the development of high-grade, enterprise-specific software, where the core processes are carried out within the enterprises, while non-complex parts of the systems are externalised to the global market.

Contact: Erik Burger
Project homepage (German)


MeRegio Mobil

The aim of the research project MeRegioMobil is to efficiently integrate mobile electrical storage in vehicles by means of innovative information and communication technologies and their implementation as integrated concepts into the established energy system. For this purpose, a wide variety of usage scenarios concerning the mobility behavior is examined. In the context of MeRegioMobil, a research and demonstration laboratory is to be established, in which, besides of research in the context of the e-energy project MeRegio, especially concepts concerning “smart home & mobility” can exemplary be examined. In addition to its benefit for demonstration purposes the laboratory can be used to test technologies and services prior to their application in the model region. Furthermore, a fleet test in Karlsruhe is being planed. As not all of the developed concepts and methods can be tested on any amount of real participants in the course of the project, off- and online simulations are made in addition to laboratory experiments and field studies, thus allowing for the examination of scaling effects is possible (e.g. 1 million electric vehicles). A continuous evaluation intended during the entire course of the project. The project is lead by the EnBW Energie Baden-Württemberg AG, at the KIT members are the AIFB, IIP, IISM, ITM, ZAR, DSN, ITI and IPD are involved.

Contact: Jörg Henß
Project Homepage (German)



This project is a cooperation between a consortium consisting of andrena objects, Delta Software Technology, FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik, OFFIS and the University of Oldenburg. The goal is to improve the capabilites to integrate legacy business information systems and standard software into new systems through the development of Domain Specific Languages for their particular domain.

Contact: http://sdq.ipd.uka.de/people/thomas_goldschmidt/index_htmlThomas Goldschmidt
Project homepage



The Q-ImPrESS project is a medium-sized focused research project (STREP) funded under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), within the ICT Service and Software Architectures, Infrastructures and Engineering priority. The Q-ImPrESS project aims at bringing service orientation to critical application domains, such as industrial production control, telecommunication and critical enterprise applications, where guaranteed end-to-end quality of service is particularly important. The main challenge here is to create a method for quality-driven software development and evolution, where the consequences of design decisions and system resource changes on performance, reliability and maintainability can be foreseen through quality impact analysis and simulation.

Contact: Mircea Trifu
Project homepage



The research project SLA@SOI will provide a major milestone for the further evolution towards a service-oriented economy, where IT-based services can be flexibly traded as economic goods, i.e. under well defined and dependable conditions and with clearly associated costs. Eventually, this will allow for dynamic value networks that can be flexibly instantiated, thus driving innovation and competitiveness.

Contact: Franz Brosch, Martin Küster
Project homepage



The growing complexity of software intensive, real-time embedded systems combined with constant quality and time-tomarket constraints creates new challenges for engineering practices.

These systems are developed according to a traditional application of the verification-and-validation cycle, where V&V activities start only when implementation and integration is completed. Many major issues, often related to the architecture and introduced early in the process, are not found until integration and validation.

At this point, they are more difficult and more expensive to fix. While preserving the V&V cycle, VERDE is promoting a more iterative and incremental approach to software development that will be driven by the early V&V activities.

The two principal goals are to:

  • Develop a solution for iterative, incremental development and validation of RTES that integrates testing and analysis tools;
  • Foster the industrialisation of this solution through a close collaboration between technology providers and end users from different domains, specifically software radio, aerospace, railway and automotive.

This ITEA 2 project will be an opportunity for a close collaboration between mature technology providers and end users from different sectors of the Industry, with the overall objective of investigating new directions for the next generation of engineering tools.

Contact: Martin Küster

Project Homepage


Project Partners